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Short Introduction to Membrane Structures

膜结构建筑也称为织物建筑结构,是20世纪中期发展起来的一种全新的建筑结构形式。是用高强薄膜材料及加强构件,通过一定的方式使其内部产生一定的预张力,以形成一种作为覆盖结构的并能承受一定外荷载作用的空间结构形式。
Membrane structure, also known as the fabric structure, is a new construction form developed in the middle of 20th Century. High strength membrane material combining together with joining components create pre-tension within the archetecture, so as to form an overlay structure that can withstand certain heavy load.

I. Inflatable通过压力控制系统向建筑室内充气,使室内外保持一定的压力差.室内设置空压自动调节系统,来及时调整室内气压,以适应外部荷载的变化。由于跨中不需要任何支撑,因此适用于超大跨度的建筑。一般用于大型体育馆。
The pressure control system inflates the interior of the building, to maintain a certain pressure difference between the inside and outside . The indoor automatic regulation system adjusts the air pressure, in order to adapt to changes in the external load. No support is needed in the span, so it is perfect for large-span buildings, especially large-scale stadiums.

Tensioned膜面一般为负高斯曲面.其体形丰富、自然流畅、曲面柔美,易形成独特的建筑形式。但这种结构体系受力分析复杂,对施工精度要求高,因此,其设计计算、加工制作及施工工艺难度都较大。适合于中小型跨度的建筑,或者看台挑篷结构。
The membrane surface is generally negative Gauss surface. Natural and smooth surface makes it easier to form unique architectural design. However, it requires complex stress analysis and high precision. Most suitable for medium and small span buildings, or stand canopy and roofing structure.

Skeleton是自身封闭的、稳定的骨架体系与膜材料共同组成一个结构受力体系。该体系施工与常规结构相似,较易被工程界理解和接受。可用于大、中、小或超大型体育公共活动场所。
Self-enclosed, steady skeleton system and membrane material form a structural system. The construction system resembles conventional structures, which is more likely to be accepted in engineering field. Can be used in large, medium, small public sports venues.

膜材料优势 Why Choose Membrane Structure Construction

高强 High Intensity
膜材料由基布和涂层两部分组成。基布主要采用高聚脂纤维丝编制而成,有平织和绞织等多种编制方法,不同的布基材料和编织方法影响着膜材料的经纬向力学性能指标,决定膜材料的抗拉强度和抗撕裂强度等;涂层材料主要有聚四氟乙烯和聚氯乙烯,在一定程度上提高了膜材料各项性能指标,为提高膜材料的耐久、自洁等特性,聚氯乙烯类膜材料表面往往有一层氟面层或硅面层,以加强膜材料的耐火,耐久及防水、自洁等性能,决定着膜材料的物理特性。
Membrane material is composed of two parts: substrate and coating. Substrate mainly adopts high polyester, with plain-weaving or inter-weaving methods. Different substrate material and weaving method differ warp and weft mechanical properties of membrane materials, tensile intensity and tearing intensity. Coating materials are mainly PTFE and PVC, improving the performance of membrane materials to a certain extent, namely durability, self-cleaning properties, with a layer of fluoride or silicon surface layer, the membrane excels in fire retardancy, durablity and waterproof, self-cleaning properties.

阻燃 Fire Retardancy
膜材料能很好的满足防火的需要,具有卓越的阴燃性和耐高温性,达到ASTMZ-136标准。已被加利福尼亚防火和洛杉矶城市防火处登记,并且已达到英国、法国、意大利、日本、澳大利、德国等国标准。PTFE聚四氟乙烯膜材料阻燃系数可达到A级标准(不燃),ETFE可达到A2级标准。
Membrane material is perfect fire retardant and has the excellence of smoldering and high temperature resistance, reaching the standard of ASTMZ-136, which has been registered in California City Fire Department, and has reached standards of the UK, France, Italy, Japan, Australia, Germany and other countries. PTFE membrane material can reach a standard of A (non flammable), and ETFE can reach the standard of A2.

透光 Translucency
膜材料的阳光透射率一般在12%—25%之间,ETFE为30--90%。可以充分利用自然光。白天不需要人工照明完全能够满足各种活动的需要。夜间良好的透光性能使建筑物在漫漫黑夜中呈现出壮丽的外观。此外,膜材料还可以去除强光,过滤部分紫外线,适合室内植物的生长。
Commonly the sunlight transmittance of membrane material is between 12% and 25%, ETFE 30--90%, which enables full use of natural light. No artificial lighting is needed during daytime. Translucency makes for the building's majestic appearance in the long dark night. In addition, the membrane material can also filter part of the UV light, suitable for indoor plants.

自洁Self-cleanse
传统的PVC膜材料在高温及紫外线的强光下,由于其分子的不稳定性,会有析出物。因此在PVC涂层外再加一层PVF(聚氟乙烯)或PVDF(聚偏二氟乙烯)或有机硅涂层。这样能有效地改善膜材料的自洁性。而成本较高的PTFE膜材料聚四氟乙烯或ETFE膜材料(乙烯与四氟乙烯的共合物)。由于分子的稳定性极强,在高温及紫外线的照射下不会有析出物,所以自洁性能极佳。不需要添加任何涂层材料。加之其不燃(A1级)的良好性能普遍应用于永久性建筑。国际上大型空间建筑基本都是采用PTFE和ETFE膜材料。
Traditional PVC membrane material is likely to precipate under high temperature and UV light, because of its molecular instability. Therefore, a layer of PVF or PVDF SiO2 can effectively improve its self-cleanse. While PTFE and ETFE membrane materials of higher cost won't precipate Due to their extreme molecular stability,thus own excellent self-cleaning properties and need not to add any coating materials. The incombustible (class A1) performance is widely used in permanent buildings. PTFE and ETFE films are the basic materials used in large space buildings.

隔音 Sound-Proof
通常膜结构建筑位于市区内,人们既不希望外部噪音传入室内,干扰室内活动,也不希望室内声音扩散出去,为此对建筑的隔音提出较高的要求。单层膜隔音仅有10dB左右,但是通过巧妙的设计、构造等手段来提高其隔音性能,完全达到人类隔音需求。
Usually the membrane structure is located in the urban area, people do not want external noise to interfere the room, as well as indoor voice to spread out, therefore put forward higher requirements on the construction noise. Insulation of single layer membrane is only about 10dB, but with ingenious design, construction and other means the sound insulation performance could be improved, fully meet the needs of human beings.

隔热 Heat insulation
PVDF、PTFE膜材料表面对光的折射可以达到70%以上,透光性可以达到12--25%,这种良好的性能可以将吸收热量减至最小,与传统的透光玻璃相比,它的传热率大幅降低,隔热性能明显优于玻璃,这对减少照明费用、夏天减少空调的消耗是十分有利的。
PVDF and PTFE can reflect more than 70% light on its optical surface, allowing 12--25% to transmit. This could reduce heat absorption to the minimum. Compared with the traditional glass, the heat transfer rate is greatly reduced, heat insulation performance is better than glass, which reduce lighting costs and air-conditioning cost in summer.
抗温变Changing Temperature Resistance

膜材料PTFE是以一层玻璃纤维作底层,这种纤维具有每平方英寸5,000,000磅的强大张力和10.5×106的弹性模数。在使用期间,表面涂层不易发生化学变化,能够忍受从-73到232度的温度变化。建成于1973年美国加州LAVERNE大学的学生活动中心是已有近40年历史的张拉膜结构建筑,跟踪测试与材料的加载与加速气候变化的实验,证明其仍可以正常使用。
PTFE uses a layer of glass fiber as substrate, whose intensity reaches 5000000 pounds per square inch and 10.5 × 106 modulus of elasticity. During use, chemical change rarely takes place on the surface coating, and can endure temperature changes from -73 to 232 degrees. The United States of California LAVERNE university student activity center built in 1973 is tensioned membrane structure. When tested and tracked of material loading and accelerate climate change experiments, it proves to function well even after 40 years.
7 Reasons for Choosing Membrane Structure Construction
Reason 1: High Intensity
Reason 2: Fire Retardancy
Reason 3: Translucency
Reason 4: Self-Cleanse
Reason 5: Sound-Proof
Reason 6: Heat Insulation
Reason 7: Changing Temperature Resistance